We, the Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA), met in Shanghai, the People's Republic of China on 21 May 2014 for the Fourth CICA Summit;
Recognising that the world is undergoing extensive and continuous changes; the trend towards multi-polarity and economic globalisation is gaining momentum; countries are becoming more inter-dependent; multilateralism and democracy are increasingly important for the international community; and more favourable conditions are emerging for safeguarding world peace and stability;
Emphasising that traditional and non-traditional security challenges threaten regional and global peace and stability;
Mindful of the fact that Asian countries face identical development challenges and have urgent need to jointly create a favourable environment that they could share in the long run;
Maintaining that the Member States should uphold solidarity and make further efforts towards enhanced peace and stability in Asia and the world, taking into account richness in the cultural diversity, on the basis of dialogue and cooperation under CICA framework and shared responsibilities in international and regional affairs;
Reaffirming our commitment to the UN Charter and universally recognised norms and principles of international law, upholding the objectives and principles of CICA enshrined in the Declaration on the Principles Guiding Relations among CICA Member States of 14 September 1999 and the Almaty Act of 4 June 2002; deciding to further advance the CICA process and continue implementing confidence building measures; and build Asia into a harmonious region with enduring peace and prosperity through comprehensive and in-depth dialogue and cooperation in the political and security fields;
Emphasising the unique importance of common indivisible, equal and comprehensive nature of security;
Underscoring the need to strengthen cooperation between regional organisations and forums in Asia by encouraging, establishing and promoting cooperation ties between CICA and other regional and international organisations and forums;
DECLARE THE FOLLOWING:
1.1 We believe that in the context of globalisation, security has become an all-encompassing concept with increasingly prominent transnational, comprehensive and interconnected features. The countries in the region share common interests and security concerns. No country can stay immune in the face of security problems. We should seek common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustained security based on the common understanding that has been reached so far.
1.2 We reiterate our collective desire to carry forward the spirit of solidarity, cooperation and mutual assistance; respect each other's sovereignty; seek common development and progress; and stay committed to building a security environment in Asia based on confidence, mutual trust, good neighbourliness, partnership and cooperation among all States deeply rooted in the heart of the Asian people.
1.3 We maintain that no State will strengthen its security at the expense of security of other States. Bearing in mind the UN Security Council’s primary responsibility under the UN Charter for maintenance of international peace and security, we emphasise that no State, group of States or organisation can have pre-eminent responsibility for maintaining peace and stability.
1.4 In accordance with the UN Charter and international law, we reaffirm to respect each other’s sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and inviolability of internationally recognised borders and to refrain in our international relations from the threat or use of force against territorial integrity or political independence of any state in any manner inconsistent with the principles and purposes of the UN Charter; to uphold resolution of disputes by peaceful means, not to interfere in the internal affairs of States; not to adopt or support actions that aim at overthrowing legitimate governments; to respect equal rights and self-determination of peoples in accordance with the UN Charter and international law; to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction of race, sex, language or religion; and international cooperation in solving international problems of economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character. We also renounce application of double standards in international affairs.
1.5 We reaffirm that diversity in traditions, cultures and values in Asia is a valuable asset to the rich content of the cooperative relations among CICA Member States. We stand ready to advance extensive dialogues across cultures, civilisations and faiths; encourage inclusiveness, mutual learning and understanding; draw on each other's strengths for common progress; and promote regional connectivity through people-to-people contacts.
1.6 We shall respect each other’s right to freely choose and develop our political, social, economic and cultural systems.
2.1 We support the United Nations playing a leading role in safeguarding and advancing international peace, cooperation and security; and promoting common development, human rights and supremacy of international law. There is an urgent need for the international community to enhance cooperation to jointly and effectively address terrorism, violent extremism, trans-national organised crime, illicit drug trafficking and corruption, as well as other threats and challenges such as scarcity of resources and climate change, in accordance with relevant international instruments.
2.2 We emphasise that the international community should jointly combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations in accordance with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and support full implementation of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. We also emphasise the need to jointly curb the spread of terrorist and extremist ideologies; and promote interreligious and interethnic tolerance, dialogue and understanding. In this context we welcome the adoption of the United Nations General Assembly resolution entitled: “A World against Violence and Violent extremism” (A/RES/68/127) initiated by the Islamic Republic of Iran, and call for the full implementation of this resolution.
2.3 We reaffirm the importance of promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms and our commitment to fulfill these obligations in accordance with the UN Charter, UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, international law and other applicable international human rights instruments. We further reaffirm that all human rights are universal, interdependent, interrelated and indivisible. International community must treat human rights globally in a fair and equal manner. While the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds must be borne in mind that it is duty of states, regardless of political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms.
2.4 We emphasise that separatism and violent extremism are threats to state sovereignty, unity, territorial integrity, security and stability. We will not support any separatist movements and entities on the territory of another Member State. We also reiterate our resolve that our territories will not be used by any separatist movements and entities and we will not establish any kind of relations or communications with separatists.
2.5 We recognise that all necessary actions are required at national, regional and global levels to cooperate to significantly reduce and eventually eradicate suffering of people from hunger, malnutrition and food scarcity caused by many reasons, including wars, belligerent actions and military besieges. The international community should undertake joint efforts to increase investments in agriculture and rural development to ensure the right to adequate food, particularly for women and children. We call for open markets, increase of domestic and international funding for agriculture and rural development; promotion of sustainable agricultural production; reduction of poverty; and work towards achieving access to food for all. We believe that a universal, rule-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system will promote agricultural and rural development in developing countries and contribute to world food security. We also recognise the need to address the root causes of excessive food price volatility including structural causes at all levels.
2.6 We acknowledge that energy security has direct impact on sustainable development at national, regional and global levels and well-being of people in all countries. We commit ourselves to further promote and reinforce energy security in line with the concept of the sustainable development and eradication of poverty as set out in the final outcome of Rio+20 by taking into account the diversified national priorities and needs of all countries, developing countries in particular. We believe that diversification of energy sources and the routes of their delivery will increase competitiveness of international energy markets. The international community should, on the basis of the principle of ”common but differentiated responsibilities“, further promote and reinforce energy security featuring mutually beneficial cooperation and diversified forms of development, particularly in developing countries, aimed at sustaining economic and social development. Countries should also step up research and promotion of advanced energy technologies, including fossil fuel, take actions, as appropriate, to develop joint infrastructure projects and ensure necessary level of investments in productive capacities, as well as vigorously develop economically efficient and environmentally sound energy resources.
2.7 We emphasise that joint efforts for promotion of regional connectivity, especially integrated and competitive transport and logistics systems, will help achieving more efficient use of trade opportunities among Member States and accelerate regional and international transport and transit cooperation that will duly serve the goal of sustainable economic development.
2.8 We reaffirm our commitment to non-proliferation, disarmament and peaceful uses of nuclear energy, as also stipulated in the relevant CICA documents, in particular those adopted at Summit and Ministerial level. We highlight the threat posed by the continuing existence and proliferation of nuclear weapons to world peace and security. We note the initiative of the Republic of Kazakhstan to propose adoption of a Universal Declaration on a nuclear-weapon-free world by the UN General Assembly. We support the objective of the global and total elimination of nuclear weapons and strengthening in all respects the nuclear non-proliferation regime based on the principles of non-discrimination, equal, indivisible and undiminished security for all states.
2.9 We support establishment of a Middle East Zone Free of Nuclear Weapons and All Weapons of Mass Destruction, based on arrangements freely arrived at among the states of the region concerned.
2.10 We welcome the nuclear-weapon-free status of Central Asia, which is a significant contribution to strengthening of global regime of non-proliferation. In this respect we welcome signing on 6 May 2014 by five NPT nuclear-weapon States, the Protocol on negative security guarantees to the Central Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty.
2.11 We also welcome the declaration of September 2012 by Mongolia and the five NPT nuclear-weapon States on the former’s nuclear-weapon-free status as a concrete contribution to non-proliferation and the enhancement of confidence and predictability in the region.
2.12 We support the inalienable right of all states to develop and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, including power generation, with due respect to their non-proliferation obligations and their commitments emanating from agreements to which they are parties; in particular the IAEA Safeguards Agreements.
2.13 We take note of Kazakhstan’s offer to host an IAEA Low Enriched Uranium Bank on its territory and call upon IAEA to make the supply of Low Enriched Uranium from this bank available to all its member states without any conditionalities that detract from the IAEA Statute.
2.14 We note with appreciation that the Nuclear Security Summits held in Washington, Seoul and The Hague contributed to setting out concrete steps and measures to strengthen nuclear and radiological security.
2.15 We also take note of the international conference on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation with the motto “Nuclear Energy for All, Nuclear Weapon for None” held in Tehran on 17–18 April 2010.
2.16 We believe that information and communication technologies have greatly promoted the economy and social welfare of mankind, but they can also be used for purposes against international peace and security. We are deeply convinced that international cooperation, including cooperation in elaboration of international norms, rules and principles of responsible behaviour of states in the use of information and communication technologies is extremely important for reducing risk and enhancing security. CICA Member States are ready to work together to build a peaceful, secure, open and cooperative information space.
2.17 We support full operationalisation of the International Think Tank for Landlocked Developing Countries in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia which was established in July 2009. We urge landlocked countries in Central Asia to ratify or accede to the Multilateral Agreement for the Establishment of the International Think Tank for Landlocked Developing Countries of September 2010 at their earliest convenience in order to bring it into full operation. We recognise the Think Tank’s potential role in providing technical and capacity-building support to member countries and deem it desirable that it should collaborate with existing networks and initiatives in the region.
3.1 We express our support to the orderly and peaceful conclusion of the ongoing developments in the Middle East and North Africa, in conformity with the UN Charter, International Law and legitimate aspirations of the peoples of the region.
3.2 Taking into account different positions on the Middle East peace process, we remain concerned and call upon all parties concerned to implement all the relevant UN resolutions to achieve comprehensive, lasting and just peace and security and stability in the region by resuming negotiations, to establish the Palestine State, based on the relevant UN resolutions and on internationally recognised legal basis on this issue with the aim of achieving the two-state solution of two states living in peace and security with each other, while fully preserving the peace, security, sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of all other states in the region. The international community, including the Quartet, should continue to provide efforts aimed at realising this goal.
3.3 We recognise the significance of regional dialogue and cooperation as means of building trust in Northeast Asia. In this regard, we welcome the relevant initiatives by regional countries, including the “Ulaanbaatar Dialogue on the Northeast Asian Security” proposed by the President of Mongolia and the “Northeast Asia Peace and Cooperation Initiative (NAPCI)” proposed by the President of the Republic of Korea. We hope that these initiatives can create synergy with other initiatives and make important contribution to confidence building and security co-operation in the region and beyond.
3.4 We believe that the peace and reconciliation process in Afghanistan should be Afghan-owned and Afghan-led. We call upon the Afghan armed opposition groups to renounce violence, sever ties with Al-Qaeda and other terrorist organisations and respect the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. We applaud the people and the government of Afghanistan for holding the recent presidential and provincial council elections that mark peaceful transition of power from one elected government to another. We take note of the completion of the transition process from ISAF forces to Afghan forces at the end of the 2014 and the beginning of the transformation decade. In this context, we remain committed to support Afghanistan and work with the rest of the international community to contribute to Afghanistan’s and the region’s security, stability, economic growth and development. We recognise the important and impartial role of the United Nations as well as contributions of regional organisations and initiatives in assisting Afghanistan to achieve these goals. In this regard, we support China in hosting the Fourth Foreign Ministerial Conference of the Heart of Asia-Istanbul Process on Deepening Cooperation for Sustainable Security and Prosperity of the Heart of Asia Region in Tianjin in August 2014.
We recognise that terrorism, violent extremism and illicit drugs pose great threat for security and stability of Afghanistan, region and beyond. While appreciating the Afghan national efforts and the joint and concerted regional and international cooperation to address the challenge of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, including dismantling of terrorist sanctuaries and safe havens, as well as disrupting all financial and tactical support for terrorism, we emphasise the need for continuing these efforts further. It is necessary that the international community assists Afghanistan in countering illicit drug production and trafficking and promoting alternative livelihood; and take other necessary measures in countering illicit drugs, precursors and consumption worldwide. In this context we call upon all the Member States to intensify activities aimed at combating illicit trade in drugs, preventing diversion of precursor chemicals used in illicit drugs, reducing drug abuse and dependence through a comprehensive approach and detecting and blocking financial flows linked to illicit trafficking of drugs and precursors.
3.5 We are concerned that the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan remains unresolved and continues to endanger international and regional security. We support peaceful resolution of this conflict on the basis of principles and norms of international law and the decisions and documents adopted in this framework. In this regard, we call on the OSCE Minsk Group to re-invigorate its efforts towards settlement of the conflict.
4.1 We recognise and appreciate the efforts of all CICA Member States, who have actively carried out dialogue and cooperated in enhancing the Confidence Building Measures, since the founding of CICA. We stand ready to further strengthen cooperation; work on further evolution of CICA process; and support CICA in playing more significant role in Asian affairs. We are ready to act upon the “Shanghai Declaration” adopted at the Summit and contribute to bringing lasting peace and common prosperity in Asia.
4.2 We welcome efforts of the coordinating and co-coordinating countries to promote cooperation in different dimensions of confidence building measures. We appreciate establishment of CICA Youth Council and CICA Business Council; and holding of three CICA Business Forums in Bangkok, Istanbul and Ekaterinburg. In this respect, we commend, in particular, efforts by Russian Federation and Republic of Kazakhstan to achieve progress in economic and human dimensions respectively. We stand committed to promote CBMs in various fields and expand long-term dialogue and cooperation among Member States.
4.3 We reaffirm that poverty eradication is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and indispensible requirement for sustainable development. We acknowledge the importance of sustainable development in accordance with national circumstances and priorities and all the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, as set out in principle 7 thereof. We further resolve to accelerate our efforts towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals by 2015. We believe that sustainable development goals being developed as per Rio+20 mandate should effectively address the three pillars of sustainable development and would contribute to the post-2015 Development Agenda.
4.4 We underline the important role of balanced Multilateral Trading System, beneficial to the realization of the developmental goals of all member States. In this context, we support the early resumption of the process of accession of some CICA Member States to the World Trade Organisation.
5.1 We appreciate the work carried out by CICA Secretariat to develop CICA; and support further strengthening of the Secretariat for better fulfillment of its mandate. We appeal to all CICA Member States to make voluntary contributions to the budget of the Secretariat. We welcome the plan to relocate the CICA Secretariat to Astana, capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
5.2 We highly commend the contribution made by Ambassador Çınar Aldemir as CICA Executive Director to development and strengthening of the CICA process.
5.3 We welcome the adoption of the new CICA Rules of Procedure.
5.4 We emphasise the importance of strengthening cooperation, partnership and external relations between CICA and other regional and international organisations and forums. In this regard we encourage CICA Secretariat to continue its efforts to forge institutional level relationships with regional and international organisations and forums.
5.5 We also welcome the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between the CICA Secretariat and the SCO Secretariat on the sidelines of the CICA Shanghai Summit.
5.6 We request those Member States, which have not already done so, to ratify the Statute of the Secretariat of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia on an expeditious basis. We also request those Member States, which have not done so already, to sign and ratify the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Secretariat, its Personnel and Representatives of Member States of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia.
6.1 We express our deep appreciation for the significant contribution made by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, H.E. Nursultan Nazarbayev, to the establishment, development and growth of CICA as the founding Chairman.
6.2 We highly commend the work carried out by the Republic of Turkey since it assumed CICA Chairmanship in 2010. The past four years under the able guidance of Turkey witnessed important progress in achieving CICA objectives and principles.
6.3 We welcome and support China's assumption of the Chairmanship of CICA and are confident that China, in close cooperation with other Member States and the observers, will pursue efforts to raise CICA cooperation and development to a higher level.
6.4 We are pleased to note increasing interest in the CICA process. In this regard, we welcome the People’s Republic of Bangladesh and the State of Qatar as new members of CICA.
6.5 We agree to hold the Fifth Meeting of CICA Ministers of Foreign Affairs in 2016 and the Fifth CICA Summit in 2018.
Shanghai, 21 May, 2014